Return and (Re)Integration after Displacement

Belonging, Labelling and Livelihoods in Three Somali Cities

Executive Summary

Somalia is grappling with a multifaceted crisis marked by prolonged internal displacement, organized and spontaneous refugee repatriation, diaspora returns, and the arrival of deported asylum seekers and migrants. The mass movement of people towards urban centers has exacerbated issues of overcrowding and strained infrastructure, housing, and services. Displaced and returning individuals often face precarious living conditions, insecurity, protection concerns, and limited livelihood opportunities.

This research endeavors to conduct a nuanced and evidence-driven analysis of the diverse factors influencing displacement, return, and (re)integration in Somalia, addressing the following inquiries:

What underlying factors shape processes of displacement, return, and (re)integration?

What influences individuals’ decisions regarding displacement, return, and (re)integration in Somalia?

What are the broader community-level implications of displacement, return, and (re)integration?

How do state and donor interventions contribute to fostering sustainable return and (re)integration?

Field research was conducted from January to May 2018 in Baidoa, Kismayo, and Mogadishu, Somalia, as well as in Nairobi, Kenya. The research teams engaged in qualitative primary data collection, conducting semi-structured interviews and engaging with key informants. A total of 439 interviews were conducted with internally displaced persons (IDPs), returnees, refugees, diaspora members, deportees, host communities, and key stakeholders from government, international organizations, and civil society.

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